The Sundarbans of Bangladesh consist of over 4000 sq.km. of mangrove forest . It extends westwards into India and is the largest mangrove forest in the world. Protected as Reserved Forest since 1987, the greater part is covered with tidal swamp consisting of a mosaic of mangrove forest ecosystems. The major recent change in the physical environment of the Sundarbans is a reduction in the amount of fresh water from the upstream. This is due to natural changes, river diversions and withdrawals of fresh water for irrigation and is believed to be the unusual mortality of sundri since 1970. Indeed, decreasing of freshwater discharge is unlikely and the problem is likely to be aggravated by a rise in sea level caused by global warming.
The Sundarbans provides ideal habitats for a variety of mammals (32 species are recorded), waders and sea birds and also suitable nesting sites for both marine turtles and the endangered estuarine terrain Batagur baska but above all the Sundarbans are well known as the home of the royal Bengal tiger, population is drastically reduced from 440 (2004) to 106 (2016). Increased salinity, sea level rise and human population pressure on Sundarbans resource (crab, fish, shrimp, Nya-thatch, honey) extraction and destructive harvesting of technique by the harvesting community. The organization has been creating conservation ethics and awareness and developed co-operative income generation model among harvester families in Nalian (2015) and replicated in Burigoalini station(2020) and intends to replicate further in Mathurapur fishermen village crab collectors following alternative livelihood search of forest department policy. FD has limited 3000 Boat Licence Certificate for fishermen from each Range. 320 beneficiaries consists of 13 groups of Mongla and Dacope UPZ are practicing Co-operative model. But there is a dilemma between poverty and nature conservation thus need develop conservation ethics among harvester community of 16 forest stations.
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